9 ways to level up your JavaScript code

I wrote this article back in 2016 and a lot has changed since. Because of this shift I have decided to remove certain sections that are no longer considered best practises or are based on ES5 APIs. Enjoy :)

1. Don’t use commas when declaring variables

The variables can now be easily moved around from line to line without having to worry about the commas.

let a = 2,
  b = a + 2,
  c = b - 3;

let a = 2;
let b = a + 2;
let c = b - 3;

2. Move code into separate modules


class Stock {
  checkItemIsInStock(item) {
    // logic

class Basket {
  constructor() {
    this.stock = new Stock();
    this.items = [];
  addToBasket(item) {
    if (this.stock.checkItemIsInStock(item)) {


import Stock from "./stock";
import Basket from "./basket";

const shoppingCart = new Basket(new Stock());

3. Utilize the Module pattern

The closure created by the Immediately Invoked Function Expression (IIFE) allows privacy. E.g: The privateMethod() is only accessible by the inner Basket class:

const Basket = (() => {
  // encapsulate a private function
  const privateMethod = () => true;

  class Basket {
    publicMethod() {
      privateMethod(); // use private methods

  return Basket;

4. Comment your code

 * Creates a Point to be used in D3
 * @class Point
 * @example
 * new Point(2, 3);
class Point {
   * @constructor
   * @param {number} x - The x value.
   * @param {number} y - The y value.
   * @returns {Point} new instance of Point
  constructor(x, y) {
    // ...

This allows developers to get a deeper understanding of what is happening in your code without having to figure it out from the code. If you use JSDOC the comments can be used to generate online documentation guides.

5. Learn design patterns

  • The Observer pattern helps your modules communicate to each other through events thus providing loose coupling in your app.

  • The Mediator pattern takes control over a group of objects by encapsulating how these objects interact. E.g: a basket that handles items.

  • The Iterator pattern is the underlying pattern for ES2015 generators.

  • The Facade pattern provides an simple interface which encapsulates the end user from complex functionality. E.g: Email module with simple methods such as start, stop and pause;

Not only are these solutions to commonly solved problems, they are a way of describing application structure to other developers fairly simply. E.g: “The basket module is a mediator for all the store items, it communicates to the payment module via an observer”.

6. Pass objects into functions with a large number of arguments

// not so good
function colorWidget(
) {}

colorWidget($("<div/>"), "#fff" /*...*/);

// way better
function colorWidget({
  element = $("<div/>"),
  colorValue = "#000",
  colorRange = [0, 255],
  colorFormat = "rgb",
  opacity = 0.8,
  onChange = () => {}
}) {
  // ...
  element: $("<div/>")
  1. Simple to add new options
  2. The developer doesn’t have to worry about the order of the arguments
  3. Simple to add default values

7. Don’t use type constructors unless specifically necessary

// Before
const x1 = new Object();
const x2 = new String();
const x3 = new Number();
const x4 = new Boolean();
const x5 = new Array();
const x6 = new RegExp("()");
const x7 = new Function();

// After
const x1 = {};           
const x2 = "";           
const x3 = 0;            
const x4 = false;        
const x5 = [];           
const x6 = /()/;         
const x7 = function(){};

The creation through type constructors is significantly slower than primitives. Also because the end result of the constructor is an Object rather than a primitive value you get nasty side effects like so:

const a = new String("x");
a === "x"  //false
a == "x" //true

const b = "dog";
b.woof = true;
b.woof; // undefined

const c = new String("dog");
c.woof = true;
c.woof; // true

8. Make sure your context is right

class Button {
  constructor () {
    this.count = 0;
  click () {
    this.count += 1;
  init () {

From a glance this should work however when a user clicks the button we will get an error that count doesn’t exist. This is because the click function is executed in the context of the $("button") element instead of the Button object. We can fix this by binding the context to the function:

class Button {
  constructor () {
    this.count = 0;
  click () {
    this.count += 1;
  init () {
    $("button").click(() => this.click());
    // or using bind

9. Apply

The apply() method calls a function with a given this value and arguments provided as an array (or an array-like object). — MDN

Some useful instances of using apply:

// emulating "super" in an constructor 
SomeConstructor.prototype.somemethod.apply(this, arguments);

// passing an array of promises to jQuery.when
$.when.apply($, [$.get(), $.get()]);

// finding the max number in an array
Math.max.apply(Math.max, [1,2,3,4,5]);

Bonus Points

Contributed by: Russley Shaw

10. Use let and const over var

let allows you to declare variables that are limited in scope to the block, statement, or expression on which it is used.

Lets look at a few use cases where this is useful over var statements:

var elements = document.querySelectorAll('p');
for (var i = 0; i < elements.length; i++) {                                 
    // have to wrap in IIFE other i would be elements.length
       elements[count].addEventListener('click', function(){
           elements[count + 1].remove();

// using let
let elements = document.querySelectorAll('p');
for (let i = 0; i < elements.length; i++) {
   elements[i].addEventListener('click', function(){
        elements[i + 1].remove();

The reason why the top example would be elements.length is because i is referenced directly so on the next iteration i is incremented. When we wrap the code in an IIFE we reference i under the parameter count thus removing the direct reference.

const allows the declaration of variables that cannot be re referenced. This is useful for declaring constants (the keyword originates from it).

const API_KEY = '2rh8ruberigub38rt4tu4t4';
const PI = 3.14;

However objects and arrays can still be accessed and changed. To stop this use Object.freeze():

const API_CONFIG = Object.freeze({
  'key': '8ry4iuggi4g38430t5485jmub',
  'endpoint': '/some/boring/api/path/'
API_CONFIG.key = null; // attempt to change
API_CONFIG.key; //= '8ry4iuggi4g38430t5485jmub'

const EVENS = Object.freeze([ 2, 4, 6, 8]);
EVENS[2] = 9;
EVENS[2]; //= 6

11. Avoid using “or” when referencing variables

The only reason to avoid doing this is when the variable is allowed to be false . Take a look at the example below:

let msg = ''; //= should hide the button
let btnMsg = msg || 'Click Me';

btnMsg; //= 'Click Me'

The reason this happens is due to the conversion of the "” into a Boolean which returns false . As the "” is counted as false the or comparison returns the other side 'Click Me'.

If you want to have shorthand if statements you can use the ternary operator:

var msg = ''; //= should hide the button
var btnMsg = msg.length < 5 ? msg : 'Click Me';

btnMsg; //= ''